In my opinion, this is one of the most helpful features in graphic design, being able to mask things with shapes. The problem is simple: you have a shape and want to shade it or add a pattern to it. You can fiddle around and make the pattern or shading fit your base shape or you can simply use the base shape as a mask.
The way to approach this issue is slightly different in various vector tools – and I have covered some in the past. Here’s the quick and easy way to do it in Affinity Designer.
Let’s start with simple shapes